From powering small machines to running gigantic industrial machines, electric motors occupy a vital role in all industries. Understanding the different types of motors helps you choose the right one for your application. In this guide, we give you all that you need to know about industrial motors – types, working and applications.
All motors have two essential parts: field winding and armature winding.
Due to the magnetic field, the armature winding generates a torque that makes the motor shaft turn. Electric motors are classified based on the winding coils.
Electric motors are classified into three main categories:
Let’s take a closer look at each of these categories.
Also known as direct current motor, they are classified into:
This motor works on direct current and the windings are linked in parallel. Hence, the name shunt. It is also known as shunt wound motor.
In this motor, the stator and rotor are connected using different power supplies. The motor is controlled using the shunt and the armatures winding are made strong to generate sufficient flux.
In the DC series motor, the rotor windings are connected in series. This motor works on the basis of this following electromagnetic law – whenever a magnetic field is formed around the conductor, it interacts with an external field that generates the rotational motion. They are primarily used as starter motors in cars and elevators.
As the name implies, it is a type of DC motor that has a permanent magnet. The permanent magnet creates a magnetic field that facilitates motor operation.
It is a hybrid of the DC series and stunt motors. In this motor, the fields act like series and stunt. The stator and rotor are connected with each other using both shunt and series windings. The series windings have wide copper wires creating a small resistance path and shunt winding is designed with multiple copper wires.
There are two major types of AC motors including:
It is a 3-phase motor and the stator generates a field current that rotates at a stable speed based on the AC frequency. The rotor rotates at a similar speed to that of the stator current. There is no air gap between the speed of the stator and rotor. These motors are used in robotics, automation, etc.
It runs at asynchronous speed and is also known as asynchronous motor. It uses electromagnetic induction for converting the electrical energy into mechanical energy. These motors are classified into two sub-categories:
They are of the following types:
It offers step angle revolution. Generally, in a motor, the whole revolution angle is 180 degrees. However, in a stepper motor the complete revolution occurs in several small steps. For example, it moves in 18 steps with each 10-degree revolutions to complete the total 180 degrees. Stepper motors are used in process control tools, usual movement generators, circuit fabrication and plotters.
These motors are less popular compared to other AC motors. They have a controller embedded into the electric motor to facilitate the lack of a slip ring and commutator.
The operation of this motor is unique. The rotor is induced by eddy current and hysteresis to power the required task. Depending on its construction, it can either work on 1-phase or 3-phase supply. It has a smooth process with stable speed just like other synchronous motors. Since it has very low operating noise, it’s used in various electronic applications like audio recorder, sound players, etc.
It is a 1-phase synchronous motor with similar construction to that of an induction motor. The rotor is like a squirrel cage type and it has an auxiliary and main winding. The auxiliary winding plays a crucial role at the beginning of the motor and operates at a stable speed. They are used in recorders, signal generators, etc.
It is a special motor that works on single AC or DC supply, hence the name universal. They are series wound and the armature and field windings are connected in series, generating high starting torque. They operate at high speeds above 3500 rpm.
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